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Waste of various kinds can be used for bioenergy.
Municipal Solid Waste
- 10-13 June 2012, San Diego, California, USA: 2nd International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts (Themes: algae, biorefining, life-cycle analysis, waste water)
- 25-26 January 2011, London, United Kingdom: Energy from Biomass and Waste. (Themes: gasification, municipal solid waste, pyrolysis, sewage, waste)
- 10-12 February 2011, Stuttgart, Germany: International Trade Fair for Renewable Energy and Passive House. (Themes: agriculture, biogas, biomass, cogeneration, waste, wood)
- 23–25 February 2011, Kharkiv, Ukraine: WasteECo-2011: International Exhibition and Conference "Cooperation for Waste Issues". (Themes: biogas, biomass, environment, technologies, waste, wastewater)
- 1-3 March 2011, Paris, France: World CTL 2011 Conference, Coal & Biomass to Fluid Hydrocarbons: Liquid Fuels, Natural Gas and Chemicals. (Themes: algae, biomass, waste, water)
- 14-16 March 2011, Atlanta, Georgia, USA: BioPro Expo 2011. (Themes: biomass, biorefineries, markets, technology, waste, wood)
- 11-14 April 2011, San Diego, California, USA: Biocycle Global 2011 Themes: (biomass, jobs, soil, waste)
- 2-5 May 2011, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: International Biomass Conference and Expo. (Themes: bio-based products, livestock waste, energy crops, forest biomass, technology, MSW)
- 18-19 May 2011, London, UK: An Introduction to Bioenergy. (Themes: agricultural waste, bioenergy, biomass, municipal waste)
- 31 May-3 June 2011, Moscow, Russia: WasteTech-2011: The 7th International Trade Fair on Waste Management, Recycling and Environmental Technology (PDF). For more information and pre-registration form visit the event website. (Themes: biogas, biomass, technologies, waste, wastewater)
- 6-10 June 2011, Berlin, Germany: 19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. (Themes: agriculture, biomass, forests, waste)
- 21-22 June 2011, Chicago, Illinois, USA: Biogas East & Midwest. (Themes: anaerobic digestion, biogas, co-digestion, farm waste, landfill gas)
- 27-30 June 2011, Washington, D.C., USA: 2011 BIO International Convention. (Themes: agriculture, biomass, environment, waste)
- 16-19 August 2011, Curitiba, Brazil: 6th International Congress of Bioenergy (Themes: agricultural waste, biomass, forestry, sugarcane, waste)
- 14-16 September 2011, Houston, Texas, USA: International Biorefining Conference & Trade Show. (Themes: agriculture, biomass, forestry, markets, technology, waste)
- 20-22 September 2011, Washington, D.C., USA: RETECH 2011 Renewable Energy Technology Conference and Exhibition. (Themes: biofuels, biomass, finance, industry, markets, technology, waste)
- 21-23 September 2011, Istanbul, Turkey: 11th International Congress on Mechanization and Energy in Agriculture. (Themes: agriculture, environment, waste)
- 25-27 September 2011, San Diego, California, USA: 2011 Waste-to-Fuels Conference & Trade Show. (Themes: biodiesel, ethanol, municipal solid waste, sewage, waste)
- 5-6 October 2011, Warwickshire, UK: European Bioenergy Expo and Conference (EBEC) (Themes: biodiesel, biogas, biomass, waste)
- 31 October 2011-2 November 2011, Madison: 11th Annual BioCycle Renewable Energy Conference (Themes: anaerobic digestion, biogas, waste)
- 2-5 March 2010, New Delhi, India: Methane to Markets. (Themes: agriculture, greenhouse gases, methane, municipal solid waste)
- 12-13 April 2010, New Delhi, India: Algae Biofuel Workshop 2010. (Themes: algae, biofuel, biogas, food vs. fuel, second-generation biofuels, waste)
- 12-15 April 2010, San Diego, California, USA: 25th Annual BioCycle West Coast Conference 2010. (Themes: anaerobic digestion, composting, municipal solid waste)
- 4-6 May 2010, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: 2010 International BIOMASS Conference & Expo. (Themes: crop residues, energy crops, wood residues, livestock and poultry wastes, MSW)
- 5-6 May 2010, Bremen, Germany: Waste to Energy: International Exhibition & Conference for Energy from Waste and Biomass. (Themes: anaerobic digestion, biogas, biomass, bio-methane gas distribution, pyrolysis, sewage, waste-to-energy)
- 17-19 May 2010, San Diego, CA, USA: Algae World Summit 2010. (Themes: algae, markets, technology, wastewater)
- 20-21 May 2010, Shenyang, China: China Bioenergy Technology and Investment Summit. (Themes: policy, technologies, waste feedstocks)
- 22-23 June 2010, Milan, Italy: Biogas Europe. (Themes: biogas, cogeneration, European regulatory framework, biogas infrastructure, markets, technology, waste feedstocks)
- 30 June - 1 July 2010, Brussels, Belgium: 2010 AEBIOM European Biomass Conference and RENEXPO. (Themes: bioenergy, markets, policy, sustainability, energy crops, wood residues, MSW and more)
- 19-21 July 2010, San Diego, California, USA: 2nd Annual Waste to Energy Finance & Investment Summit. (Themes: financing, markets, municipal solid waste, technology)
- 3-5 August 2010, Tifton, Georgia, USA: Southeast Bionenergy Conference. (Themes: aviation, biomass pellets, cellulosic ethanol, ethanol, second generation biofuels, waste)
- 4-6 August 2010, Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Northeast BIOMASS Conference & Expo. (Themes: advanced biofuels, agriculture, biomass, co-generation, forestry, technology, waste)
- 24-26 August 2010, Atlanta, Georgia, USA: BioPro Expo 2010. (Themes: agriculture, biomass, farm, food processing residue, forest, municipal solid waste, wood waste)
- 28-30 September 2010, Phoenix, Arizona, USA: 2010 Algal Biomass Summit. (Themes: algae, aviation fuels, biomass, technology, waste water)
- 29-30 September 2010, Lyon, France: Biogaz Europe. (Themes: anaerobic digestion, biogas, biomethane, waste)
- 30 September-1 October 2010, Istanbul, Turkey: Bioenergy Markets Turkey. (Themes: biogas, biodiesel, biomass, cogeneration, ethanol, waste)
- 6-7 October 2010, Warwickshire, United Kingdom: European Bioenergy Expo and Conference. (Themes: biodiesel, biogas, biomass, feedstock, waste)
- 13-14 October 2010, San Francisco, California, USA: Biogas USA. (Themes: biogas, markets, technology, waste)
- 18-20 October 2010, Des Moines, Iowa, USA: 10th Annual BioCycle Renewable Energy from Organics Recycling. (Themes: biogas, crop residue, manure, waste)
- 2-4 November 2010, Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Southeast Biomass Conference & Expo. (Themes: advanced biofuels, biomass-derived electricity, biorefining, industrial heat and power, technology, waste)
- 8-11 November 2010, Venice, Italy: Third International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste. (Themes: biomass, gasification, waste-to-energy, etc.)
- 30 November-2 December 2010, Delhi, NCR, India: NextGenFuels 2010. (Themes: algae, biofuels, international cooperation, next-generation biofuels, waste)
- 6-7 December 2010, Miami, Florida, USA: Biogas to Energy Fundamentals: Ag, Food Processing, and Landfill Waste. (Themes: agriculture, biogas, waste)
- 8-10 December 2010, Sydney, Australia: Bioenergy Australia 2010 - Biomass for a Clean Energy Future. (Themes: advanced biofuels, algae, biochar, biomass, co-firing, waste)
- 17-19 May 2009, San Diego, California, USA: 2009 Waste-to-Fuels Conference & Trade Show. (Themes: agricultural waste, energy recovery, landfill gas, Municipal Solid Waste, waste)
- 16 November 2009, Washington, D.C., USA: The Energy Conversation - OMEGA: A Call to Action to Produce the Next Generation of Biofuels NOW. (Themes: algae, municipal solid waste, next generation biofuels)
- 14-16 October 2008, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA: Energy from Biomass and Waste. (Themes: biomass, waste)
- EU carbon target threatened by biomass 'insanity' 2 April 2012 by Arthur Neslen for EurActiv: "The EU's emissions reduction target for 2020 could be facing an unlikely but grave obstacle, according to a growing number of scientists, EU officials and NGOs: the contribution of biomass to the EU's renewable energy objectives for 2020."
- "On 29 March, a call was launched at the European Parliament for Brussels to reconsider its carbon accounting rules for biomass emissions, and EurActiv has learned that the issue is provoking widespread alarm in policy-making circles."
- "Around half of the EU's target for providing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020 will be made up by biomass energy from sources such as wood, waste and agricultural crops and residues, according to EU member states' national action plans... Wood makes up the bulk of this target and is counted by the EU as 'carbon neutral', giving it access to subsidies, feed-in tariffs and electricity premiums at national level."
- "But because there is a time lag between the carbon debt that is created when a tree is cut down, transported and combusted – and the carbon credit that occurs when a new tree has grown to absorb as much carbon as the old one – biomass will increase atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the interim." 
- Turning Garbage Into Car Fuel? Venture Gains Momentum, 1 June 2011 by the New York Times Green blog: "Enerkem, a Montreal company that makes ethanol from old utility poles and household garbage, will announce Wednesday that a major independent oil refiner, Valero, has made its first investment in the company, and Waste Management, a trash-hauling company is raising its stake. With $60 million in new financing, total investment in Enerkem will reach $130 million."
- "In Edmonton, the company has a 25-year contract to accept municipal solid waste, which means anything a household throws out. After separating out recyclable materials, it shreds the waste and heats it to around 400 degrees Celsius, or about 750 degrees Fahrenheit."
- "At that temperature, the waste gives off a gas that includes hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Enerkem scrubs out the impurities, including carbon dioxide, and runs the gas over a catalyst, which converts it to methanol. The methanol can be turned into ethanol or a variety of other chemical feedstocks."
- "Many companies are trying to use waste materials to make ethanol. Almost all of them pay for the raw materials, but Enerkem is paid to dispose of the garbage, making its feedstock 'cost-negative,' in the company’s phrase."
- 'And making ethanol from garbage entails sharply lower carbon dioxide emissions than making it from corn does. Corn ethanol needs large amounts of natural gas, but the Enerkem process relies on the heat given off by the process itself so that no fossil fuels are burned except during the start-up. What is more, trash turned into fuel is trash that is not buried in a landfill, where it can give off methane, itself a potent global warming gas."
- Mexican Scientists Focus on Producing Biofuels from Trash, 15 April 2011 by Latin American Herald Tribune: "Mexican scientists are developing a bio-refinery that will convert organic waste into hydrogen, natural gas and substrates used in industry, the Center for Advanced Research and Studies, or Cinvestav, said."
- "The project will emulate the operating model of a traditional refinery and obtain different products from the same material, in this case waste, Carlos Escamilla, a doctoral student in Cinvestav’s Biotechnology Department, said in a statement about the project he is heading."
- "The novelty of the Mexican initiative is that hydrogen, methane and enzymes are to be produced from the same raw material."
- "According to the doctoral student, Mexico produces 102,000 tons of garbage per day, or almost 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) per inhabitant, and 60 percent of that total is organic waste that 'could generate large amounts of electricity, natural gas and substrates for industrial use.'"
- New era dawns for mini synfuels, 11 March 2011 by Mail and Guardian Online: "South African technology, already demonstrated in Australia and China, is being used to generate liquid fuel from coal and gas but can also be used to make fuel from biomass, including municipal waste."
- "Advances in the development of synthetic fuel by the University of the Witwatersrand's Centre of Materials and Process Synthesis (Comps) mean that smaller modular plants, which can produce both fuel and electricity, can do so while releasing 30% less CO2."
- "The creation of fuel from biomass through a further application of the technology means municipal garbage dumps and landfills could become energy stores instead of expensive problems for future generations."
- "The process, put simply, works as follows: coal is converted into gas, mainly carbon monoxide and hydrogen, through what is known as gasification. This gas is then converted into liquid fuel through the Fischer-Tropsch process, named after German scientists Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch, who invented it in the 1920s."
- "Similarly, gas to liquids (GTL) converts natural gas to liquids and biomass to liquids (BTL) sees the gasification of waste, and the resultant gases are then converted to fuel."
- Brewery waste microbes could make biofuels, 25 February 2011 by Physorg.com: "Employing powerful genome sequencing tools, Cornell scientists led by Largus T. Angenent, associate professor of biological and environmental engineering, have gained new insight into how efficiently the microbes in large bioreactors produce methane from brewery waste."
- "They hope to use their new knowledge to shape these microbial communities so they will produce liquid biofuels and other useful products."
- "The scientists had access to a plethora of data, thanks to a collaboration with engineers at Anheuser-Busch InBev, which makes Budweiser beer and operates nine domestic beer breweries that treat wastewater in bioreactors."
- "In ongoing research, the Cornell engineers are looking to prevent methane production by the microbes, and instead, to shape the bacterial communities to produce carboxylates, which are a precursor to the alkanes found in fuels."
- USDA lists bioenergy program awardees, many are biodiesel plants, 24 January 2011 by Biodiesel Magazine/USDA: "Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced new investments in 33 states to support the production and usage of advanced biofuels."
- "Authorized under Section 9005 of the Farm Bill, the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels authorizes payments to eligible producers to expand production of advanced biofuels."
- "Eligible examples include biofuels derived from cellulose, crop residue, animal, food and yard waste material, biogas (landfill and sewage waste treatment gas), vegetable oil and animal fat."
- "The producer payments are intended to provide a financial incentive to biorefineries – a necessary step towards meeting the nation’s renewable energy needs."
- NRDC Assesses Biochar - Says High Hopes For Carbon Storage Premature , 29 November 2010 by Treehugger: "There's been lots of back and forth in the past year on biochar, ranging from research showing it has huge potential for absorbing carbon emissions on one side, to uncertainty about its potential, to outright hostility towards the enthusiasm shown towards it--and all from people with good environmental credentials. A new report from NRDC tries to sort it all out, and comes down somewhere in the middle."
- "Biochar: Assessing the Promise and Risks To Guide U.S. Policy (PDF file) arrives at the overall conclusion that there is great technical potential for biochar on a global scale....It's just premature to claim with certainty what the impact of widespread biochar production and application will be..."
- "The main point made about developing biochar systems with the best environmental performance is using the right feedstock." The report claims that already existing 'concentrated sources of waste biomass, such as animal manures, organic municipal solid waste, and urban wood residues', as opposed to plants grown explicitly for use as biochar feedstocks, would be the best material for biochar production, as such existing feedstocks are not linked to land-use changes.
- Download the report: Biochar: Assessing the Promise and Risks To Guide U.S. Policy (PDF file)
- Algae Biofuels 10 Years From Viability, 8 November 2010 by Pete Danko: "Algae isn’t nearly ready for prime-time as a biofuel, according to a new study, and until it is the industry will need to seize upon non-fuel applications that could help make it cost-effective."
- "The report found that even under best-case scenarios, oil produced from algae will remain excessively expensive in the 'near-to-mid-term.' Another challenge is that the industry is highly dependent on availability of suitable climate, water, flat land and carbon dioxide, all 'available in one location.' When everything comes together — perhaps 10 years of research, development and demonstration from now, 'algal oil production technology has the potential to produce several billion gallons of renewable fuel in the United States.'"
- "To bridge the gap, the report recommends a focus on co-products — for instance, producing algal biofuels in conjuction with wastewater treatment. Another possibility cited was animal feeds."
- UN incineration plans rejected by world's rubbish-dump workers, 5 August 2010 by The Guardian: "The waste-pickers who scour the world's rubbish dumps and daily recycle thousands of tonnes of metal, paper and plastics are up in arms against the UN, which they claim is forcing them out of work and increasing climate change emissions."
- "Their complaint, heard yesterday in Bonn where UN global climate change talks have resumed, is that the clean development mechanism (CDM), an ambitious climate finance scheme designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries, has led to dozens of giant waste-to-energy incinerators being built to burn municipal rubbish, as well as hundreds of new landfill schemes designed to collect methane gas."
- "'Waste-pickers, who are some of the poorest people on earth, recover recyclable materials. They are invisible entrepreneurs on the frontline of climate change, earning a living from recovery and recycling, reducing demand for natural resources,' says Neil Tangri, director of Gaia, an alliance of 500 anti-incinerator groups in 80 countries."
- "But they are being undermined by CDM projects, which deny them entry to dumps. This is leading to further stress and hardship for some of the poorest people in the world and is increasing emissions,' he said."
- "Yesterday Gaia called for the CDM to stop approving incinerator waste to energy projects and to start investing climate funds in the informal recycling sector. This, he said, would increase employment and labour conditions while dramatically reducing emissions."
- Klobuchar bill: trojan horse for bad biofuels, 14 July 2010, Nathanael Greene’s Blog/NRDC: "It should come as no surprise that the first copy of the full text of Sen Klobuchar's energy bill was found on a corn ethanol industry association website; the bill reads like the industry's wish list."
- "Here are some of laundry list of bad biofuel provisions:
- "Gutting the definition of renewable biomass so that it would include everything from old growth to garbage..."
- "Legislating away the science of lifecycle GHG accounting for ethanol. Using lots of land to make ethanol instead of food means that food production moves to new land and that leads to deforestation."
- "Defining mature and mainstream corn ethanol, which has been commercially produced for well over 30 years as an 'advanced biofuel' under the RFS2."
- Scientists Question EPA's Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimates, 28 June 2010 by azocleantech.com: "The approach the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural anaerobic lagoons that treat manure contains errors and may underestimate methane emissions by up to 65%, according to scientists".
- "An interdisciplinary team of scientists from the University of Missouri evaluated the EPA and IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] approach to estimate greenhouse emissions from anaerobic lagoons." They "documented errors in the approach, which the EPA and IPCC adapted from a method used to estimate methane production from anaerobic digesters." Additionally, the team "found that uncovered anaerobic lagoons were more efficient at converting waste to methane than predicted using literature based on digesters."
- See the paper, An Evaluation of the USEPA Calculations of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Anaerobic Lagoons.
- METI Releases Report on Sustainability Standards for Biofuels, 14 June 2010 by Japan for Sustainability: "Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and the Ministry of the Environment jointly organized the 'Study Group on Sustainability Standards for the Introduction of Biofuels,' and released the report on March 5, 2010."
- One of the key findings of the report concerned results of life-cycle analyses of carbon dioxide emissions associated with biofuels. It was found that, in comparison "with CO2 emissions from gasoline, only sugar cane produced at existing sites in Brazil and domestic produce such as sugar beet, as well as construction waste, meet reduction standards on an LCA basis of more than 50 percent. A future direction for Japan is to set reduction standards on an LCA basis of 50 percent."
- See the METI press release, Report of the Study Group on Sustainability Standards for the Introduction of Biofuel
- New Energy Coalition Calls for Passage of Clean Energy Bill, 16 June 2010 by American Wind Energy Association (AWEA): "On the heels of President Obama's June 15 speech calling for clean energy legislation, a new coalition of renewable energy, energy efficiency, and biofuels organizations today called on the U.S. Senate to quickly pass comprehensive energy legislation that will create millions of American jobs and decrease our reliance on foreign supplies of fossil fuels by using our own clean and abundant resources."
- A letter issued by this coalition reads in part: "Ensuring steady growth of the industries that will solve our climate, water, and waste challenges will be a critical way to address not only near-term employment challenges but our long-term environmental and energy security goals. Renewable energy, energy efficiency, and biofuels can make a significant down payment on carbon pollution targets."
- PSC Approves Biomass Plant for Gainesville, 27 May 2010 by Gainesville Regional Utilities: "Plans to bring biomass energy to Gainesville took another step forward today. Commissioners from Florida’s Public Service Commission (PSC) approved GRU and American Renewables’ joint petition for the Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, a planned 100-megawatt biomass plant."
- "Under terms of the 30-year energy contract, American Renewables will build, own and operate the biomass facility. GRU will purchase and own 100 percent of the energy produced. The plant will be fueled by a plentiful, local supply of leftover clean woody waste using urban wood waste, wood processing wastes and logging residues."
- China Farm Gets Shocking Amount of Power From Cow Poop, 6 May 2010 by The New York Times: "A 250,000-head dairy operation in northeast China plans to open the world's largest cow manure-fed power project in September, according to General Electric Co., the company supplying four biogas turbines to the Liaoning Huishan Cow Farm in Shenyang. For comparison, the largest U.S. dairy farms have 15,000 cattle."
- "China's newest livestock digester will reduce piles of dung, yield fertilizer and heat, and will supply 38,000 megawatt-hours of power annually to the state's power grid, enough to meet the average demand of some 15,000 Chinese residents. It produces biogas, a methane and carbon dioxide mix emanating from manure, grease, sewage or other organic materials allowed to stew in an oxygen-free chamber."
- "The barriers to the expansion of biogas are about economics, not technology, and how long it takes for biogas projects to pay off varies country by country."
- "The biogas field could be one more example of the ways the United States is falling behind China. Yesterday, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said that the United States is lagging behind China, which provides strong tax incentives for a host of renewable energy technologies."
- Obama touts ethanol as vital piece of rural economic recovery, 28 April 2010 by Ben Geman, The Hill:"Obama endorsed expanded ethanol production during a speech at a Macon, Missouri plant owned by POET, the country’s largest ethanol producer."
- "Obama noted funding for ethanol projects and research in last year’s stimulus law, and also cited his interagency biofuels working group. The administration wants to see ethanol production tripled over the next 12 years, he said. "
- "POET and other companies are also seeking to develop next-generation fuels made from materials such as crop wastes, algae and grasses."
- PRC's Drive to Tap Biogas in Rural Sector Gets ADB Loan, 19 April 2010 press release by the Asian Development Bank: "The People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) drive to expand the use of biogas energy generated from waste materials is getting support from a $66.08 million Asian Development Bank (ADB) loan."
- "The financial assistance for the Integrated Renewable Biomass Energy Development Sector Project has been approved by ADB's Board of Directors. The loan will be used to help construct biogas plants in poor rural areas of Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangxi and Shandong provinces, benefiting 118 livestock farms and agricultural enterprises.
- "The project will introduce high-temperature flare technology to minimize methane gas emissions from the plants. It will support the manufacture of bio-fertilizers from biogas sludge for eco-farming, aiding the government’s push to encourage the reuse and recycling of organic waste."
- "Under PRC’s Medium- and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy, about 10,000 large-scale biogas plants are earmarked to be set up on livestock farms by 2020 with an annual biogas yield of up to 14 billion cubic meters."
- POET announces plans for 3.5 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol in 2022, 21 April 2010 by POET: "POET, the largest producer of ethanol in the world, has made enough progress on technology and feedstock development to break ground on its first plant in Emmetsburg, Iowa later this year"
- "'By 2022, POET plans to be responsible for 3.5 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol production by adding the technology to our existing facilities, licensing our technology to other producers and finally, transferring our technology to other forms of biomass such as wheat straw, switchgrass and municipal waste,' Broin said. That volume would represent over 20 percent of the cellulosic ethanol mandated in the Renewable Fuel Standard."
- Europe Finds Clean Energy in Trash, but U.S. Lags, 13 April 2010 by the New York Times: Twenty-nine modern waste-to-energy incinerators in Denmark "have become both the mainstay of garbage disposal and a crucial fuel source across Denmark....Their use has not only reduced the country’s energy costs and reliance on oil and gas, but also benefited the environment, diminishing the use of landfills and cutting carbon dioxide emissions."
- "With all these innovations, Denmark now regards garbage as a clean alternative fuel rather than a smelly, unsightly problem."
- "Across Europe, there are about 400 plants, with Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands leading the pack in expanding them and building new ones."
- "By contrast, no new waste-to-energy plants are being planned or built in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency says — even though the federal government and 24 states now classify waste that is burned this way for energy as a renewable fuel, in many cases eligible for subsidies. There are only 87 trash-burning power plants in the United States, a country of more than 300 million people, and almost all were built at least 15 years ago."
- One reason is that "powerful environmental groups have fought the concept passionately. 'Incinerators are really the devil,' said Laura Haight, a senior environmental associate with the New York Public Interest Research Group."
- Biofuels: Airplane fuel of the future?, 5 April by Arthur Max, Associated Press: "Within a decade, passenger planes will be flying on jet fuel largely made from plants — flax, marsh grass, even food waste — as airlines seek to break away from the volatile oil market and do their part to fight climate change, aviation experts say."
- "Dependency on agrofuels 'will lead to faster deforestation and climate change and spells disaster for indigenous peoples, other forest-dependent communities and small farmers, says a statement from the Global Forest Coalition, an alliance of environmental groups."
- "A Swiss-based organization, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels, has drawn up standards for certifying the entire chain of production."
- "The European Union has decided that by 2012 all flights into and from European airports will be subject to the European carbon trading program. That means airlines will be given a limit on how much carbon dioxide they can emit, and they can buy or sell carbon credits depending on whether they are over or under their targets."
- Path to Sustainable Bioenergy in United States Will Require a New Roadmap, 30 March 2010, by Jordan Lubetkin at NWF: "The vast potential of plant-based energy sources to create jobs, curb global warming and protect wildlife could be a reality in the United States—but not without changes in federal policies that have created an unsustainable first generation of biofuels, according to a new report released today by the National Wildlife Federation."
- "The report sets out several visions for what a sustainable bioenergy future might look like, highlighting successful biomass businesses that are producing energy for schools, colleges, hospitals, and prisons using native grasses, wood waste, and even forest debris from Hurricane Rita."
- "Biomass already produces 15 times more renewable energy for the United States than wind and solar combined -- mostly from wood waste used at paper mills. It holds the promise for creating heat, electricity and fuel from a variety of sources."
- Read the full report: Growing a Green Energy Future: A Primer and Vision for Sustainable Biomass Energy (PDF)
- British Airways to buy jet fuel from city waste, 16 February 2010 by Reuters: "British Airways will start sourcing a small portion of its jet fuel from municipal waste from 2014, under a deal with U.S.-based biofuel company Solena Group."
- In Search of Wildlife-friendly Biofuels: Could Native Prairie Plants Be the Answer, 29 September 2009 by NewsWise/Michigan Technological University: "The unintended consequence of crop-based biofuels may be the loss of wildlife habitat, particularly that of the birds who call this country’s grasslands home, say researchers from Michigan Technological University and The Nature Conservancy."
- "What’s the solution? There are at least two ways to produce bioenergy without destroying wildlife [and habitat], the researchers say. One is to use biomass sources that don’t require additional land, such as agricultural residues and other wastes from municipal, animal, food and forestry industries."
- Trash Becomes Ethanol in Major Canadian Alt-Fuel Move, 15 December 2008 by The Cutting Edge:
- Canada's "Edmonton has an aggressive trash reduction program with 60 percent of all solid waste being recycled or composted. What’s new is that they intend to improve that figure by taking an additional 30 percent of their waste stream and making ethanol."
- "The city expects to put 75,000 tons of waste into the process annually and get back nearly seven and a half million gallons of ethanol. The payback on the $70 million investment should come very quickly, even with the currently depressed oil prices — perhaps in as little as seven to ten years." 
- City plans to convert human waste to energy, 10 September 2008 by Reuters: "San Antonio [Texas] unveiled a deal on Tuesday that will make it the first U.S. city to harvest methane gas from human waste on a commercial scale and turn it into clean-burning fuel."
- Municipal waste to produce ethanol by 2011, 21 July 2008 in the Financial Times: "The world's first commercially produced ethanol from municipal waste will be on sale by early 2011, according to Ineos, the privately-held chemicals group backing the technology."
- "The costs of the process "stack up very well, and are cost competitive against any other approach to producing ethanol."
- "The EU's target is to get to 10 per cent of its road fuel coming from biofuels by 2020...."That implies that, relying on the Ineos process alone, more than half of all the EU's organic municipal waste would have to be used for fuel to meet the target."
- Army to turn trash into power in Iraq, 13 March 2008 by the Associated Press: The U.S. Army "is preparing to deploy to Iraq two 4-ton biomass refineries designed to turn piles of trash into electricity. Each can run for 20 hours on a ton of trash, producing enough power to light a small village."
- Tool for calculating greenhouse gases (GHG) in solid waste management (SWM) (PDF file) by Institut für Energie (Germany), July 2009. "The objective of this 'Tool for Calculating GHG Emissions in Solid Waste Management' (SWM-GHG Calculator) is to aid in understanding the effects of proper waste management on GHG emissions. The SWM-GHG Calculator allows quantification and comparison of GHG emissions for different waste management strategies at an early stage in the decision making process."
|Waste for bioenergy use||edit|
| Wood waste (Wood pellets)|
Agricultural waste (Biomass pellets, Corn stover, Dung, Straw, Waste citrus peels, Manure, Green manure)
Municipal waste (Municipal Solid Waste - MSW)
Waste Vegetable Oil
What is bioenergy? | Benefits/Risks | Who is doing what?