Clean Development Mechanism
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Under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of three "flexible mechanisms" that allow the "Annex I" countries (i.e., industrialized countries with greenhouse gas reduction commitments) to receive credit for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Under the CDM, Annex I countries can receive credits for reductions achieved through projects in developing countries, where the cost-efficiency of emissions reductions may be greater than in the more energy-efficient industrialized countries. CDM projects can also transfer technology and promote economic development.
Bioenergy and the CDM
Some emissions reduction methodologies related to biofuels have been proposed for certification under the CDM. These include the following:
- "Fuel Switch from Petro-diesel to Biofuel for the Transport Sector in Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) Karnataka, India" - a project to "use the oil extracted from vegetable oil plants for use as a fuel blend with diesel." (See the Project Design Document (PDF file))
- UN incineration plans rejected by world's rubbish-dump workers, 5 August 2010 by The Guardian: "The waste-pickers who scour the world's rubbish dumps and daily recycle thousands of tonnes of metal, paper and plastics are up in arms against the UN, which they claim is forcing them out of work and increasing climate change emissions."
- "Their complaint, heard yesterday in Bonn where UN global climate change talks have resumed, is that the clean development mechanism (CDM), an ambitious climate finance scheme designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries, has led to dozens of giant waste-to-energy incinerators being built to burn municipal rubbish, as well as hundreds of new landfill schemes designed to collect methane gas."
- "'Waste-pickers, who are some of the poorest people on earth, recover recyclable materials. They are invisible entrepreneurs on the frontline of climate change, earning a living from recovery and recycling, reducing demand for natural resources,' says Neil Tangri, director of Gaia, an alliance of 500 anti-incinerator groups in 80 countries."
- "But they are being undermined by CDM projects, which deny them entry to dumps. This is leading to further stress and hardship for some of the poorest people in the world and is increasing emissions,' he said."
- "Yesterday Gaia called for the CDM to stop approving incinerator waste to energy projects and to start investing climate funds in the informal recycling sector. This, he said, would increase employment and labour conditions while dramatically reducing emissions."
- Haiti's Rebuild May Be Biochar's Big Breakthough, 4 March 2010 by TreeHugger: "Biochar, the 'co product' of burning wood or agricultural waste in a pyrolitic (oxygen free) environment, has garnered both praise and criticism for its possibilities as a CO2 sequestration tool."
- "WorldStoves, a company that makes a number of pyrolitic stoves, has partnered with the NGO International Lifeline Fund and a private Haitian company to bring its 'Lucia' stove designs to Haiti. In Haiti, the use of wood for charcoal for home cooking needs is widespread, which has led to a continuing cycle of deforestation and soil [degradation]."
- "What makes the Lucia stove so magic is that a Haitian woman or man could cook for a five-person family using just about 300 grams of twigs, groundnut shells, rice husk or dung."
- "[If] biochar is included in the UN's Certified Emission Reductions (CER) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) schemes, creating it in cookstoves and sequestering it in soil could help Haiti economically as well."
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